Waterproof or water-resistant describes objects relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions. Such items may be used in wet environments or under water to specified depths. Waterproofing describes making an object waterproof or water-resistant (such as a camera or watch).
Water resistant and waterproof often refer to penetration of liquid water. Permeation of water vapor is reported as a water vapor transmission rate. Also, water from condensation is usually separate from water resistant.
The hulls of boats and ships were once waterproofed by applying tar or pitch. Modern items may be waterproofed by applying water-repellent coatings or by sealing seams with gaskets or O-rings.
In construction, a building or structure is waterproofed with the use of membranes and coatings to protect contents underneath or within as well as protecting structural integrity. The waterproofing of the building envelope in construction specifications is listed under 07 - Thermal and Moisture Protection within MasterFormat 2004, by the Construction Specifications Institute, and includes roofing material as well as waterproofing materials[citation needed].
Waterproofing is used in reference to building structures (basements, decks, wet areas, etc.), watercraft, canvas, clothing (raincoat, waders) and paper (e.g., milk and juice cartons).
Waterproofing should not be confused with roofing, as roofing cannot withstand hydrostatic head, and waterproofing can.
In building construction, a structure needs waterproofing since concrete itself will not be watertight on its own (but note concrete is easily waterproofed with additives). The conventional system of waterproofing involves membranes. This relies on the application of one or more layers of membrane (available in various materials: e.g., bitumen, silicate, PVC, EPDM etc.) that act as a barrier between the water and the building structure, preventing the passage of water. However, the membrane system relies on exacting application, presenting difficulties. Problems with application or adherence to the substrate can lead to leakage. In the UK these membranes are rarely allowed below ground below the water table.
Over the past two decades, the construction industry has had technological advances in waterproofing materials, including integral waterproofing systems as well as more advanced membrane materials.
Integral systems work within the matrix of a concrete structure, giving the concrete itself a waterproof quality. There are two main types of integral waterproofing systems: the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic systems. A hydrophilic system typically uses a crystallization technology that replaces the water in the concrete with insoluble crystals. Various brands available in the market claim similar properties, but not all can react with a wide range of cement hydration by-products, and thus require caution. Hydrophobic systems use fatty acids to block pores within the concrete, preventing water passage.
New membrane materials seek to overcome shortcomings in older methods like PVC and HDPE. Generally, new technology in waterproof membranes relies on polymer based materials that are extremely adhesive to create a seamless barrier around the outside of a structure. Basement waterproofing

Basement waterproofing once completed becomes very difficult since the water pressure is from the negative side (from outside coming inside), the difficulty arises when a membrane cannot withstand hydrostatic pressure from within the substrate and therefore fails. Water may enter a basement through various means including through joints, walls, or floors. Various basement waterproofing systems address these problems. There are many systems available of varying cost, effectiveness, and installation invasiveness. Specially used membranes in this field are protection board sheets. Basement waterproofing may be done internally and externally. Because basement foundations can be brick, block, concrete, and even wood, it is important to pick the right waterproofing system for the right foundation. One effective way to waterproof cracks in poured concrete walls is by epoxy injection


Coating to protect against external influences, or to beautify the appearance of the surfaces of objects covering the operation of another substance. Kaplamacılıkta as a means of coating used in many procedures.
Metal coating: metal or non-metallic anti-corruption bodies, surfaces or abrasion-resistant metal covered many times. Cleaned and prepared before the coated surface. Coating process, spraying, dipping, diffusion, gas and vacuum is performed within the means of condensation.
Surrface Preparation: Before the coating process of organic and inorganic contaminants and oxide layers coated surfaces must be cleaned thoroughly. For this, the metal surface, immersed in the appropriate solvent or solvents to clean the surface by spraying the surface of foreign substances. Alkaline detergent is used according to the type of dirt or acid solutions. If necessary, they will contribute to the high pressure injection into the corrosive salts utilized fine. Electrolysis method may be applied. Oxide layer of steel and removal of 65-85 ° C temperature reduction as a matter of 15% 10-sulfate acid (H2SO4) solution or dilute hydrochloric acid at 20 ° C is used.

Mechanical cleaning: Aluminum oxide or silicon carbide abrasive stone and dust, sand paper or cloth surface to smooth and covered by dirt, foreign material removed. The surface is sprayed with steam under pressure, or abrasive powders or etching the surface of a rotating drum is provided in the covered parts.

Chemical cleaning: This method of acid etched metal surfaces, dağlanır, chemical or electrochemical polished way. Copper surfaces are usually persulphates, chromate compounds, or salts of iron oxide by using three dağlanır. Chemical polishing of zinc and aluminum, such as nitric and phosphoric acid is carried out by immersion into a strong oxidizing acid solutions. Electro-polishing of the aluminum, iron, steel, stainless steel, zinc, various alloys, electrolytic copper anode connects to the bathroom.

Metal Coating Operations

Injection: In case the corresponding metal or metal alloy powder or wire coated with a gun to the surface is sprayed is melted. Spray coating through the two most widely used metals, zinc and aluminum. More liquid metal spray tanks, used for coating of steel structures in place.

Hot-dip: coated metal surface, after cleaning the molten metal daldırlarak surface diffusion (diffusion) through the coating is provided. For this purpose, as metal coatings, zinc, tin, lead and aluminum is used. Steel, zinc is dipped galvanized. Zinc can also be used instead of tin. Thin sheets of iron from tin cans are immersed. To avoid surface oxidation during the process, the appropriate fluxes, using the surface air in contact with hydrogen or inert gases are cut off.

Cementation or diffusion coating: coated metal, put into powder coating the metal is heated to be used. Environment oxidation, anti-substances in contact with air, inert gases are kept. For example, with a metal coating of aluminum diffusion of the means by which metal parts kalorizasyon process, in which the aluminum powder is placed in a rotating drum. Sementasyonunda iron temperature is 850 ° -950 ° C. This way of iron with zinc kaplanmasına şerardizasyon (shererdization) is called. Chrome plating is done with it is called kromizasyon.

Pin (Percussion), coating (Peen plating): coated metal parts, metal powders used in coating solution and an activator in conjunction with a rotary drum is placed inside. There is also the effect of metal parts falling within the pulse of the drum. Washer (washer), nails, small pieces of chain with this method, such as zinc, brass and is coated with cadmium.

Gas coating: Coating of metal used for the gaseous compound, usually carbonyl, while the coated object is heated body. Hot on the surface of metal atoms separated from the gaseous compound is collected on the surface. This procedure than chromium and iron-plated nickel coating can be sometimes.

Vacuum condensation: this method of casting metals and plastics can be coated with metal. To be used for coating metal is evaporated in vacuum by heating with tungsten heater. Track surface is coated, cleaned, adjusted and polished the metal vapor within the cell are rotated. Metal vapor condenses on the surface of the cold part. Aluminum, gold, silver and other metals buharlaştırılabilen used for this purpose. This is not sort of wear-resistant coatings, also coated with a lacquer.

Chemical reduction through the coating (Electroless): Water-soluble silver, gold and copper salts in an aqueous medium with a strong reducing effect through the reduction of the glass (as in the construction of the mirror), plastics and metals can be covered.

Chemical coating by means of substitution: Fields, the displacement solution through the copper, gold, silver and coated with tin. Coating thickness is very thin (2.5 x10-6 mm).

Plated by electrolysis (Electroplating): coated metal or plastic track surface was made conductive, the metal salt solution used for coating in the cathode connected to the metal cations, coated on the surface by the accumulation is performed by passing an electric current. (See Electrolysis)

One of about 33 with the metal, in aqueous solutions, electrolysis can be plated. Other metals plated with molten salts or organic electrolytes to do is electrolysis. The coating of metal with about 15 commercial purposes. Some of these are: Copper, silver, zinc, gold, platinum, cadmium, tin, lead, chromium and nickel
Surface Treatment Of Aluminum And Aluminum Alloys
Abstract:
Aluminum alloys are divided into two major categories: wrought and casting alloys. A further differentiation for each category is based primary on mechanism of property development. Many alloys respond to thermal treatment based on phase solubility. These treatments include solution heat treatment, quenching and precipitation, or age hardening.
In order to improve surface properties of final products, such as wear resistance, corrosion resistance, reflectivity etc., different types of surface treatment were designed. All of them are divided into several groups, such as electrochemical treatments, chemical treatments and coatings. In this article their terms and definitions will be explained.
Aluminum alloys are divided into two major categories: wrought and casting alloys. A further differentiation for each category is based primary on mechanism of property development. Many alloys respond to thermal treatment based on phase solubility. These treatments include solution heat treatment, quenching and precipitation, or age hardening.
In order to improve surface properties of final products, such as wear resistance, corrosion resistance, reflectivity etc., different types of surface treatment were designed. All of them are divided into several groups, such as electrochemical treatments, chemical treatments and coatings. In this article their terms and definitions will be explained.
Electrochemical treatment
Electrochemical brightening: Electrochemical treatment to improve the optical reflectivity of a surface.
Electropolishing: Polishing of a metal surface by making it anodic in an appropriate electrolyte.
Anodized metal Metal with an anodic coating, produced by an electrolytic oxidation process in which the metal is converted to a mainly oxide coating having protective, decorative or functional properties.
Clear anodized metal: Metal with a substantially colorless, translucent anodic oxidation coating.
Color anodized metal: Anodized metal colored either during anodizing or by subsequent coloring processes.
Integral color anodized metal: Metal that has been anodized using an appropriate (usually organic acid based) electrolyte which produces a colored coating during the anodizing process itself.
Electrolytically colored anodized metal: Metal with an anodic oxidation coating that has been colored by the electrolytic deposition of a metal or metal oxide into the pore structure.
Dyed anodized metal: Metal with an anodic oxidation coating colored by absorption of dye-stuff or pigments into the pore structure.

Combination color anodized metal: Metal with an anodic oxidation coating that is colored by electrolytic coloring or produced by integral color anodizing followed by absorption dyeing.
Interference color anodized metal: Metal with an anodic oxidation coating colored by means of optical interference effects.
Bright anodized metal: Anodized metal with a high specular reflectance as the primary characteristic.
Protective anodizing: Anodizing where protection against corrosion or wear is the primary characteristic and appearance is secondary or of no importance.

Decorative anodizing: Anodizing where a decorative finish with a uniform or a esthetically pleasing appearance is the primary characteristic.

Architectural anodizing: Anodizing to produce an architectural finish to be used in permanent, exterior and static situations where both appearance and long life are important.

Hard anodized metal: Anodized metal on which the anodic oxidation coating has been produced with wear and/or abrasion resistance as the primary characteristic.

Sealing: Treatment of anodic oxidation coatings on metal to reduce porosity and the absorption capacity of the coating by hydrothermal processes carried out after anodizing.

Cold impregnation: Treatment of anodic oxidation coatings on metal to plug the pores and reduce the absorption capacity of the coating by chemical processes carried out at low temperatures after anodizing.

Significant surface: The part of the product covered or to be covered by the coating and for which the coating is essential for serviceability and/or appearance.

Chemical treatment
Chemical brightening: Chemical treatment to improve the optical reflectivity of a surface.

Chemical polishing: Polishing of a metal surface by immersion in a solution of chemical reagents.

Degreasing: Removal of oil or grease, usually by a suitable organic solvent or an aqueous detergent.

Etching: Roughening of the surface of a metal by overall or selective dissolution in acid or caustic media.

Pickling: Removal of a thin surface layer of a metal by chemical action, mainly by treatment in a caustic solution.

Coating

Coating (organic): Method in which a coating material is applied on a metallic substrate. This process includes cleaning and chemical pre-treatment and either:

* one-side or two-side, single or multiple application of liquid or powder coating materials which are subsequently cured or
* laminating with plastic films.

Coil coating: Continuous coating of a metal strip.

Backing coat: Single coating of any type with no particular requirements for appearance, malleability, corrosion protection, etc. usually on the reverse side of the coated product.

Chemical conversion coating: Treatment of a metal with chemical solutions by dipping or spraying to build up an oxide film containing chromates or phosphates.

Priming: Application of a priming paint often pigmented with a corrosion inhibitor such as zinc chromate, after suitable pretreatment.

Pretreatment priming: Application of a solution containing a resin, a chromate and an acid, which is allowed to dry on and provide the key for subsequent painting.

Single coat system: Single coating either with requirements on appearance, malleability, corrosion protection, subsequent painting, etc., or as a primer with special properties regarding adhesion and corrosion protection for post-painting applications.

Multiple coat system: System comprising a primer or a base coat, possibly intermediate coat(s), and a top coat with particular requirements on appearance, malleability, corrosion protection, etc.

Organic coating: Dry paint film of the coated product or the organic film metal laminate.

Film coating: Organic film applied to a substrate to which an adhesive and, if appropriate, a primer has been applied beforehand.

Lacquering: Coating with a formulation based on a dissolved material which forms a transparent layer primarily after drying by evaporation of the solvent.

Painting: Coating with a non-transparent formulation containing pigments
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